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Jongkind and his era
Jongkind Arts and science Netherlands/France
1814Birth of J-Fr. Millet
1815

William 1, King of the Netherlands 1815 to 1840

Waterloo

Restoration : Louis XVIII king of France

1819

Birth of Jongkind, in Lattrop, the Netherlands on 3 June

Birth of Joséphine Borrhée-Fesser, in Namur

Birth of Courbet
1824Charles X, king of France
1829-50Balzac : "La Comédie Humaine"
1830

V. Hugo "Hernani"

Stendhal : "Le Rouge et le Noir"

The July Revolution: Louis-Philippe I, king of France

Europe stricken by cholera (1831-32)

1832Birth of Manet
1834Birth of Degas
1835-40de Tocqueville : "De la démocratie en Amérique"
1835-72Andersen: "Contes pour Enfants"The last great bubonic plague in Europe
1837

Studies drawing in The Hague

Meets Andreas Schelfhout

First French railway line (Paris - St Germain)

Death of Constable

1839First water-colour datedBirth of Cézanne and of Sisley
1840Birth of Monet and of RodinWilliam I of the Netherlands abdicates in favour of his son, William II
1843Jongkind is awarded a grant by William II
1845Meeting with Eugène Isabey
1846

Leaves the Netherlands

First visit to Paris

Marx and Engels publish

Claude Bernard’s work on the fonction hépatique

Famine in Europe
1848First Parisian exhibition

Second Republic : Universal suffrage; freedom of the press, freedom to assemble...

The workers’ revolution: Louis Napoléon Bonaparte elected President of the Republic

1849-51Jongkind discovers Normandy on a visit with Eugène IsabeyDeath of TurnerWilliam III crowned king of the Netherlands
1852-1870Second empire : Napoléon III’s presidential régime
1857

Flaubert under trial following the publication of "Mme Bovary". Flaubert acquitted.

Baudelaire convicted for "Les Fleurs du Mal"

1855-60Return to the Netherlands

1859 - Darwin’s "Origin of Species"

Franco-British free trade treaty

1860

Jongkind returns to France

Meeting with Joséphine Fesser

Nice and Savoy are returned to France
1861Joséphine Fesser invites Jongkind to Nevers and its region. First visit to NeversNapoléon declares France neutral vis à vis the America Guerre de Sécession
1862Jongkind frequents Boudin and MonetV. Hugo publishes "Les Misérables"
1863Exhibition at the Salon des Refusés (Salon for those rejected by the Salon de Paris)

The jury of the Salon de Paris rejects Manet’s "Déjeuner sur l’herbe"

Death of Delacroix

Birth of Signac

Napoléon III decrees the organisation of a Salon des Refusés for the works not accepted by the Salon de Paris
1863-65Discovers Honfleur and the Honfleur artists1865 - Mendel and Claude Bernard publish their "introduction to experimental medicine"The US demand the withdrawal of French troops from Mexico
1866-69Return to the Netherlands

Tolstoï’s "War and Peace"

Dostoïevski’s "Crime and Punishment"

Verlaine: "Poèmes saturniens"

1870-1900The Impressionists gain public recognition, thanks in particular to the exhibitions organised by art dealer Paul Durand-Ruel in London and New York
1870Discovers Never with the FessersDefeat of the Napoleonic Empire in the Franco-Prussian war. Proclamation of the Third Republic
1871The Paris Commune
1872Monet’s "Impression, Setting sun"
1873Discovers the Dauphiné - Pupetières and Virieu

Rimbaud’s "Une saison en enfer"

Jules Verne’s "Around the world in 80 days"

1874The first of 8 exhibitions by the Impressionnist group in Paris (Jongkind does not take part)Treaty of Saigon; France returns Tonkin to the emperor of Annam
1875

Death of Corot (born 1796)

Death of Millet in Barbizon

1878Jules Fesser buys a house in La Côte-Saint-André (Dauphiné). He has an art studio built for his mother and Jongkind
1879-1885Gambetta and Ferry; new laws establishing civil rights in France
1882Success of the Jongkind exhibition at the Galerie Détrimont, Paris
1883Treaty establishing a French Protectorate over Tonkin and Cochinchine
1885-1899

Pasteur and the discovery of the rabies vaccine (1885)

Nietzsche: "Thus spake Zarathoustra"

1885 - Zola: "Germinal" and
Van Gogh: "The Potato eaters"

Crises and scandals in France threatening to overturn the Third République: Dreyfus, Boulanger, Panama...
1886Death of Isabey
1888

Van Gogh settles in the south of France

Gauguin returns to Brittany after years overseas

1880-1891A period of prolific production, between Paris and the DauphinéWilde’s "Portrait of Dorian Grey"
1890Death of Van GoghWilhelmine succeeds William III in the Netherlands
1891Death of Jongkind on 9 February in St Égrève, Grenoble. Joséphine Fesser follows him a few months later
1907-14Jongkind is finally recognised in official circles, thanks to the collectors Isaac de Camondo and Étienne Moreau-Nélaton

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