||Arts and science
|1814||Birth of J-Fr. Millet|
William 1, King of the Netherlands 1815 to 1840
RestorationÂ : Louis XVIII king of France
Birth of Jongkind, in Lattrop, the Netherlands on 3 June
Birth of JosĂ©phine BorrhĂ©e-Fesser, in Namur
|Birth of Courbet|
|1824||Charles X, king of France|
|1829-50||BalzacÂ : "La ComĂ©die Humaine"|
V. Hugo "Hernani"
StendhalÂ : "Le Rouge et le Noir"
The July Revolution: Louis-PhilippeÂ I, king of France
Europe stricken by cholera (1831-32)
|1832||Birth of Manet|
|1834||Birth of Degas|
|1835-40||de TocquevilleÂ : "De la dĂ©mocratie en AmĂ©rique"|
|1835-72||Andersen: "Contes pour Enfants"||The last great bubonic plague in Europe|
Studies drawing in The Hague
Meets Andreas Schelfhout
First French railway line (Paris - St Germain)
Death of Constable
|1839||First water-colour dated||Birth of CĂ©zanne and of Sisley|
|1840||Birth of Monet and of Rodin||William I of the Netherlands abdicates in favour of his son, William II|
|1843||Jongkind is awarded a grant by WilliamÂ II|
|1845||Meeting with EugĂ¨ne Isabey|
Leaves the Netherlands
First visit to Paris
Marx and Engels publish
Claude Bernardâ€™s work on the fonction hĂ©patique
|Famine in Europe|
|1848||First Parisian exhibition|
Second RepublicÂ : Universal suffrage; freedom of the press, freedom to assemble...
The workersâ€™ revolution: Louis NapolĂ©on Bonaparte elected President of the Republic
|1849-51||Jongkind discovers Normandy on a visit with EugĂ¨ne Isabey||Death of Turner||William III crowned king of the Netherlands|
|1852-1870||Second empireÂ : NapolĂ©on IIIâ€™s presidential rĂ©gime|
Flaubert under trial following the publication of "Mme Bovary". Flaubert acquitted.
Baudelaire convicted for "Les Fleurs du Mal"
|1855-60||Return to the Netherlands|
1859 - Darwinâ€™s "Origin of Species"
Franco-British free trade treaty
Jongkind returns to France
Meeting with JosĂ©phine Fesser
|Nice and Savoy are returned to France|
|1861||JosĂ©phine Fesser invites Jongkind to Nevers and its region. First visit to Nevers||NapolĂ©on declares France neutral vis Ă vis the America Guerre de SĂ©cession|
|1862||Jongkind frequents Boudin and Monet||V. Hugo publishes "Les MisĂ©rables"|
|1863||Exhibition at the Salon des RefusĂ©s (Salon for those rejected by the Salon de Paris)|
The jury of the Salon de Paris rejects Manetâ€™s "DĂ©jeuner sur lâ€™herbe"
Death of Delacroix
Birth of Signac
|NapolĂ©on III decrees the organisation of a Salon des RefusĂ©s for the works not accepted by the Salon de Paris|
|1863-65||Discovers Honfleur and the Honfleur artists||1865 - Mendel and Claude Bernard publish their "introduction to experimental medicine"||The US demand the withdrawal of French troops from Mexico|
|1866-69||Return to the Netherlands|
TolstoĂŻâ€™s "War and Peace"
DostoĂŻevskiâ€™s "Crime and Punishment"
Verlaine: "PoĂ¨mes saturniens"
|1870-1900||The Impressionists gain public recognition, thanks in particular to the exhibitions organised by art dealer Paul Durand-Ruel in London and New York|
|1870||Discovers Never with the Fessers||Defeat of the Napoleonic Empire in the Franco-Prussian war. Proclamation of the Third Republic|
|1871||The Paris Commune|
|1872||Monetâ€™s "Impression, Setting sun"|
|1873||Discovers the DauphinĂ© - PupetiĂ¨res and Virieu|
Rimbaudâ€™s "Une saison en enfer"
Jules Verneâ€™s "Around the world in 80 days"
|1874||The first of 8 exhibitions by the Impressionnist group in Paris (Jongkind does not take part)||Treaty of Saigon; France returns Tonkin to the emperor of Annam|
Death of Corot (born 1796)
Death of Millet in Barbizon
|1878||Jules Fesser buys a house in La CĂ´te-Saint-AndrĂ© (DauphinĂ©). He has an art studio built for his mother and Jongkind|
|1879-1885||Gambetta and Ferry; new laws establishing civil rights in France|
|1882||Success of the Jongkind exhibition at the Galerie DĂ©trimont, Paris|
|1883||Treaty establishing a French Protectorate over Tonkin and Cochinchine|
Pasteur and the discovery of the rabies vaccine (1885)
Nietzsche: "Thus spake Zarathoustra"
1885 - Zola: "Germinal" and
VanÂ Gogh: "The Potato eaters"
|Crises and scandals in France threatening to overturn the Third RĂ©publique: Dreyfus, Boulanger, Panama...|
|1886||Death of Isabey|
Van Gogh settles in the south of France
Gauguin returns to Brittany after years overseas
|1880-1891||A period of prolific production, between Paris and the DauphinĂ©||Wildeâ€™s "Portrait of Dorian Grey"|
|1890||Death of Van Gogh||Wilhelmine succeeds William III in the Netherlands|
|1891||Death of Jongkind on 9 February in St Ă‰grĂ¨ve, Grenoble. JosĂ©phine Fesser follows him a few months later|
|1907-14||Jongkind is finally recognised in official circles, thanks to the collectors Isaac de Camondo and Ă‰tienne Moreau-NĂ©laton|