||Arts and science
|1814||Birth of J-Fr. Millet|
William 1, King of the Netherlands 1815 to 1840
Restoration : Louis XVIII king of France
Birth of Jongkind, in Lattrop, the Netherlands on 3 June
Birth of Joséphine Borrhée-Fesser, in Namur
|Birth of Courbet|
|1824||Charles X, king of France|
|1829-50||Balzac : "La Comédie Humaine"|
V. Hugo "Hernani"
Stendhal : "Le Rouge et le Noir"
The July Revolution: Louis-Philippe I, king of France
Europe stricken by cholera (1831-32)
|1832||Birth of Manet|
|1834||Birth of Degas|
|1835-40||de Tocqueville : "De la démocratie en Amérique"|
|1835-72||Andersen: "Contes pour Enfants"||The last great bubonic plague in Europe|
Studies drawing in The Hague
Meets Andreas Schelfhout
First French railway line (Paris - St Germain)
Death of Constable
|1839||First water-colour dated||Birth of Cézanne and of Sisley|
|1840||Birth of Monet and of Rodin||William I of the Netherlands abdicates in favour of his son, William II|
|1843||Jongkind is awarded a grant by William II|
|1845||Meeting with Eugène Isabey|
Leaves the Netherlands
First visit to Paris
Marx and Engels publish
Claude Bernard’s work on the fonction hépatique
|Famine in Europe|
|1848||First Parisian exhibition|
Second Republic : Universal suffrage; freedom of the press, freedom to assemble...
The workers’ revolution: Louis Napoléon Bonaparte elected President of the Republic
|1849-51||Jongkind discovers Normandy on a visit with Eugène Isabey||Death of Turner||William III crowned king of the Netherlands|
|1852-1870||Second empire : Napoléon III’s presidential régime|
Flaubert under trial following the publication of "Mme Bovary". Flaubert acquitted.
Baudelaire convicted for "Les Fleurs du Mal"
|1855-60||Return to the Netherlands|
1859 - Darwin’s "Origin of Species"
Franco-British free trade treaty
Jongkind returns to France
Meeting with Joséphine Fesser
|Nice and Savoy are returned to France|
|1861||Joséphine Fesser invites Jongkind to Nevers and its region. First visit to Nevers||Napoléon declares France neutral vis à vis the America Guerre de Sécession|
|1862||Jongkind frequents Boudin and Monet||V. Hugo publishes "Les Misérables"|
|1863||Exhibition at the Salon des Refusés (Salon for those rejected by the Salon de Paris)|
The jury of the Salon de Paris rejects Manet’s "Déjeuner sur l’herbe"
Death of Delacroix
Birth of Signac
|Napoléon III decrees the organisation of a Salon des Refusés for the works not accepted by the Salon de Paris|
|1863-65||Discovers Honfleur and the Honfleur artists||1865 - Mendel and Claude Bernard publish their "introduction to experimental medicine"||The US demand the withdrawal of French troops from Mexico|
|1866-69||Return to the Netherlands|
Tolstoï’s "War and Peace"
Dostoïevski’s "Crime and Punishment"
Verlaine: "Poèmes saturniens"
|1870-1900||The Impressionists gain public recognition, thanks in particular to the exhibitions organised by art dealer Paul Durand-Ruel in London and New York|
|1870||Discovers Never with the Fessers||Defeat of the Napoleonic Empire in the Franco-Prussian war. Proclamation of the Third Republic|
|1871||The Paris Commune|
|1872||Monet’s "Impression, Setting sun"|
|1873||Discovers the Dauphiné - Pupetières and Virieu|
Rimbaud’s "Une saison en enfer"
Jules Verne’s "Around the world in 80 days"
|1874||The first of 8 exhibitions by the Impressionnist group in Paris (Jongkind does not take part)||Treaty of Saigon; France returns Tonkin to the emperor of Annam|
Death of Corot (born 1796)
Death of Millet in Barbizon
|1878||Jules Fesser buys a house in La Côte-Saint-André (Dauphiné). He has an art studio built for his mother and Jongkind|
|1879-1885||Gambetta and Ferry; new laws establishing civil rights in France|
|1882||Success of the Jongkind exhibition at the Galerie Détrimont, Paris|
|1883||Treaty establishing a French Protectorate over Tonkin and Cochinchine|
Pasteur and the discovery of the rabies vaccine (1885)
Nietzsche: "Thus spake Zarathoustra"
1885 - Zola: "Germinal" and
Van Gogh: "The Potato eaters"
|Crises and scandals in France threatening to overturn the Third République: Dreyfus, Boulanger, Panama...|
|1886||Death of Isabey|
Van Gogh settles in the south of France
Gauguin returns to Brittany after years overseas
|1880-1891||A period of prolific production, between Paris and the Dauphiné||Wilde’s "Portrait of Dorian Grey"|
|1890||Death of Van Gogh||Wilhelmine succeeds William III in the Netherlands|
|1891||Death of Jongkind on 9 February in St Égrève, Grenoble. Joséphine Fesser follows him a few months later|
|1907-14||Jongkind is finally recognised in official circles, thanks to the collectors Isaac de Camondo and Étienne Moreau-Nélaton|